Older black woman sitting on a couch, wondering What are the Different Types of Fibroids?

What are the Different Types of Fibroids?

Non-cancerous, uterine fibroids are quite common and impact many women. Most people who develop them remain symptom-free, but some may experience heavy menstrual bleeding and pain. Understanding the different types of fibroids and their symptoms is the first step in being able to appropriately treat them.

What Are Fibroids?

Fibroids are muscular tumors that grow in or on the wall of the uterus. They can vary in both size and number. The location of a fibroid within the uterus defines the type of fibroid and the course of action to take if necessary.

Submucosal Fibroid

Just below the thin layer of tissue found in the uterus is the submucosa. When a fibroid forms in this location, it protrudes into the uterine cavity and is often linked to infertility problems. This is the rarest type of fibroid.

A hysteroscopy myomectomy is a minimally-invasive procedure typically performed to treat submucosal fibroids. This is the most common form of treatment for this kind of fibroid, but other options may be available depending on what your doctor recommends.

Pedunculated Fibroid

Inside the uterine cavity or outside the uterus, stems or stalks may develop by attaching themselves to the uterine wall. This type of fibroid is referred to as a pedunculated fibroid. As the pedunculated fibroid increases in size, the likelihood of the fibroid becoming twisted and causing pain increases.

If a pedunculated fibroid causes intense discomfort,  a uterine artery embolization procedure may be performed to cut the blood supply to the fibroid. In some instances, a myomectomy may be carried out in an attempt to remove the fibroid.

Intramural Fibroid

The most common type of fibroid is the intramural fibroid. These may develop in the front, back, or upper part of the uterus and grows between the muscles. As with other fibroid types, symptoms of an intramural fibroid may range from none to being very mild. This type of fibroid may drastically affect a woman’s quality of life.

For those seeking treatment, childbearing plans and the severity of symptoms will determine whether medication or surgery is the best course of action. Procedures commonly used to remove intramural fibroids are uterine artery embolization and myomectomy. A hysterectomy is the last resort to improve the overall health condition.

Subserosal Fibroid

Commonly found to cause bladder pressure or back pain, a subserosal fibroid grows outside the lining of the uterus. As it protrudes outward, the subserosal fibroid will often grow to be the largest of the above-mentioned fibroids. Naturally, symptoms will increase in severity as a fibroid grows in size.

Again, the severity of the symptoms determines whether to perform a myomectomy. In some women, cutting the blood supply to the fibroid will be attempted.

Providing patients with the best comprehensive care, Georgia Vascular Institute utilizes minimally-invasive techniques to treat various types of fibroids. If you or someone you love is dealing with fibroids, the experts at Georgia Vascular Institute can help. Give us a call at 770-506-4007 or click here to schedule an appointment.

Healthy food in containers (chicken, avocado, walnuts, and apples), good examples of a uterine fibroids diet.

What Kind of Diet Should I Follow if I Have Uterine Fibroids?

While the cause of uterine fibroids is unknown, it’s common knowledge that fibroid growth is largely fueled by estrogen. One of the best ways to control the estrogen count in your body is by eating a certain diet, which means this diet can also increase or decrease the risk of fibroid development.

Adding certain foods and making simple changes to your diet are great ways to balance your hormones, therefore helping to manage fibroid symptoms on top of improving overall health. If you’re wondering what kind of diet you should follow if you have uterine fibroids, we’re outlining the best foods to eat plenty of and the ones to avoid.

Fill Your Plate with Fruits and Vegetables

Regularly eating fruits which are high in antioxidants, such as apples and tomatoes, may help decrease the risk of fibroids. In addition, consuming green, leafy vegetables that contain the substance indole-3-carbinol can have a positive effect on the way your body metabolizes estrogen. Great examples of these are kale, cabbage, and broccoli.

Fill up on these veggies and fruits, and you’ll lower the risk of developing estrogen-driven fibroid tumors.

Eat More Vitamin D Rich Foods

Research suggests that incorporating Vitamin D into your diet is a great way to reduce the risk of fibroid development, as the vitamin has been known to shrink the volume and size of fibroids. If you have a job that requires you to sit at a desk all day or live in a cooler climate that doesn’t get a lot of sunshine, chances are you already have a Vitamin D deficiency.

The good news is that you can easily incorporate more Vitamin D into your diet through supplements and eating vitamin-rich foods like salmon, tuna, fortified cereals, egg yolks, and cheese. Drinking more milk and fortified orange juice can greatly reduce your symptoms and risk of fibroids, as well.

Avoid Alcohol and Caffeine

Your body’s ability to effectively metabolize estrogen is greatly influenced by the health of your liver. Both alcohol and caffeine add unnecessary stress on your liver, and alcohol triggers inflammation and raises certain hormone levels that contribute to the development of fibroids. Women seeking to alleviate fibroid symptoms should consider limiting or avoiding the intake of alcohol and caffeine.

Avoid Salt

According to research, high blood pressure is linked to the development of severe fibroids. Avoiding salt and limiting packaged and processed foods with high sodium are ways to balance your blood pressure. Instead of salt, which is also hard on your liver, choose spices and herbs for food flavoring.

Managing fibroids with diet and lifestyle can only do so much. The fibroid treatment center at Georgia Vascular Institute provides the most comprehensive care available and offers a wide range of treatment options. Give us a call at 770-506-4007 to learn more or click here to schedule an appointment.

Common Signs of Vascular Problems

Your body’s complex vascular system consists of arteries, veins, and capillaries. Any issue that interrupts this highway of blood vessels can cause a multitude of problems. Ignoring the symptoms of vascular disease can lead to severe pain, disability, and even death. Knowing what the common signs of vascular problems are and when you should seek treatment are important to your health and overall well-being.

One of the most common types of vascular disease is peripheral artery disease, also commonly referred to as PAD. This disease can affect both men and women and can occur at any time. The disease is the result of fatty deposits in your arteries causing your arteries to become narrowed, therefore reducing the blood flow to your limbs. Although the limbs are most commonly affected, circulatory problems linked to PAD are likely an indication that there is a more widespread buildup of fatty deposits in your arteries.

We’re explaining the common symptoms of peripheral artery disease below.

Leg Pain

Leg pain that can be mild all the way to debilitating when walking is the most common symptom of PAD. Most often, the pain is triggered by an activity that leads to cramping and muscle pain.

The most common location for pain is in the calf area. Although at times, it may be felt in the thigh, hip, and buttock.


A numbness or tingling sensation in the legs or feet may be a warning sign of peripheral artery disease. The sensation comes as a result of the body’s inability to pump blood through the narrow arteries. In addition to the numbness and tingling, an individual may experience leg weakness that is persistent or unpredictable.

Appearance in Legs

A marked temperature difference in the lower leg or foot compared with the other leg or to the rest of your body is another indication that blood flow is being restricted and is likely not nourishing other organs and tissues. If you notice the thinning of leg hair or your toenail growth has slowed, you may be encountering the earlier symptoms of PAD.

Don’t Ignore the Common Signs of Vascular Problems

Often times those who experience only mild symptoms of PAD (like symptoms that disappear after resting or symptoms that come and go) may dismiss them and just assume it is just part of the natural aging process. However, any symptoms should not be ignored. PAD can often be treated with simple lifestyle changes, such as eliminating tobacco use, exercising, and incorporating a healthy diet.

As soon as you notice any of the symptoms mentioned above, it’s important to seek help from vascular experts like the physicians at Georgia Vascular Institute. Our staff is well trained in the field of vascular disease, and we are here to help you manage your symptoms and prevent the disease from progressing. Give us a call at 770-506-4007 or click here to schedule an appointment.

Man suffering from one of the common migraine triggers.

Common Migraine Triggers and How to Avoid Them

If you suffer from migraines, you know the symptoms can sometimes be incapacitating. Common symptoms often include nausea, dizziness, vomiting, and sensitivity to light, sound, and odors. By identifying the signs of a migraine onset, though, you can learn to identify your specific triggers. More importantly, you can implement preventive tools to help you manage this debilitating condition and possibly avoid future attacks. Here is a closer look at the common culprits shared among migraine sufferers and how you can avoid them.


Stressful situations are often beyond our control, but how we react is important in warding off migraines. Learning techniques to reduce stress can be beneficial, too. Methods such as relaxation therapy, meditation, and doing things you love can often reduce stress and change the way your body responds to stress.

Exercise is key to being healthy and is a great stress reducer, but it is imperative that you choose activities that don’t put overwhelming amounts of strain on the body. Water aerobics, yoga, and tai chi are excellent examples of low-stress exercises you can do to reduce the onset of migraines.


Many people find their migraines symptoms intensify because of food and drink choices, and hunger and dehydration both serve as triggers for migraine headaches. This is why it’s important to eat regularly and to avoid skipping meals. You should always make sure to eat within one hour after waking and then every three to four hours. Keeping a food diary to identify foods that trigger symptoms and avoiding those foods can be a preventive tool as well.

Common ingredients that often trigger a migraine attack include foods that contain MSG and histamine. Several common foods identified to cause migraine symptoms are cheese, chocolate, artificial sweeteners, and cured meats. Being mindful of caffeine or alcohol consumption can help identify what amounts can lead to a migraine onset. It’s also recommended to sip on water all day long and track your fluid intake to prevent dehydration.


There is an undeniable connection between a migraine and sleep patterns. Sleep helps to renew and repair all parts of the body, including the brain, which explains why an irregular sleep schedule can trigger a migraine onset. It is important to have a regular bedtime and get at least 7-8 hours of sleep a night to avoid migraines. However, going to bed and going to sleep are two different things. Try to avoid texting, reading, and watching television at bedtime to ensure adequate sleep is achieved.

According to the American Migraine Foundation, nearly half of all migraine attacks occur between 4:00 a.m. and 9:00 a.m., which places migraine sufferers at a greater risk for developing a sleep disorder. Even getting too much sleep can trigger a migraine, so waking up at the same time daily is important too.

Remember, everyone has different migraine triggers and will experience a migraine differently. Avoiding severe symptoms can often be as simple as a change in your lifestyle and diet. By learning what to avoid, you can learn to keep your migraines under control. Talking openly with your doctor and identifying your triggers can assist your doctor in giving you an accurate diagnosis and will be of the utmost help in creating the best treatment plan.

Georgia Vascular Institute is a referral center that can help with many types of health concerns. We can help with veins, fibroids, infertility, migraines, osteoporosis, cancer treatment, foot and leg ulcers, and many other conditions. Contact us anytime to learn more about how migraine treatment options can help you. 

Male understanding the relationship between Understanding the Relationship Between Smoking and Male Fertility with help of family

Understanding the Relationship Between Smoking and Male Fertility

Ask any regular smoker or chewer of tobacco, and most will agree it takes only a short amount of time to become addicted to nicotine. A nicotine habit like smoking has been linked to a multitude of adverse health issues and those using tobacco are highly encouraged to stop. Keep reading below to understand the relationship between  smoking and male fertility.

Understanding the Relationship Between Smoking and Male Fertility

The relationship between nicotine and male infertility has sparked interest with many researchers. It is estimated 15 percent of couples face some form of infertility when trying to have children, and according to certain studies, cigarette smoking can have a damaging effect on the volume, sperm count, and ability of sperm to move properly to reach an egg.

Studies also confirm DNA fragmentation is increased in the sperm of smokers. This could play a role in complications with embryo development as well as be a contributing factor to increased miscarriage rates. Furthermore, researchers have suggested the number of cigarettes a male smokes on a daily basis is related to the impairment of semen quality.

A Closer Look at Smoking and Male Fertility

In an attempt to explain the connection, researchers suggest smokers have lower zinc levels than nonsmokers and this plays a role in the irregular semen parameters. Researchers also suggest men who smoke are exposed to metals that contain toxins, which can lead to the development of high levels of cadmium and lead, both of which have been linked to decreased fertility.

Also noteworthy is the fact that smoking can have adverse effects on the success of certain techniques like in-vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Couples seeking assisted reproduction techniques should take into account the negative impact smoking plays on male fertility.

In addition to the aforementioned effects, researchers claim exposure to cigarettes in utero may influence a man’s eventual fertility in the future. This means if a male is born to a mother who smoked during her pregnancy, he may be at risk for poor sperm health and may have difficulty conceiving a child later on in life.


Reduced semen health doesn’t always mean infertility but evidence points to the fact that men who are having trouble conceiving should be encouraged to stop smoking in order to optimize their fertility outcomes. If a man is already at risk for infertility, smoking may be the factor that determines his ability to conceive or not conceive a child. Dropping the habit will improve a couple’s chances of having a child.

Georgia Vascular Institute is a referral center that can help with many types of health concerns. We can help with veins, fibroids, infertility, migraines, osteoporosis, cancer treatment, foot and leg ulcers, and many other conditions. Contact us anytime to learn more about how interventional radiology can help you. 

Mother and daughter discussing period and uterine fibroids

Tips for Talking With Your Daughter About Periods and Uterine Fibroids

For many young girls, understanding what’s happening with their bodies while going through puberty is very important to them. A planned outing or a special weekend getaway can be an ideal opportunity to discuss such personal changes.

Girls should know what to expect when puberty hits, and if possible, they should feel confident in the relationship they have with their parents to ensure they feel comfortable sharing personal information and have intimate and private conversations. A young girl is likely to have a ton of questions regarding her period, including lots of inquiries about pads, tampons, and panty liners. There is a lot of helpful information online that can make teaching how to insert a tampon quite simple.

What Happens During Puberty for a Girl?

During puberty, the body will go through many changes, with most girls starting their periods between nine and 16 years of age. It’s during this time that the ovaries begin to release eggs, and as a result of this, a girl’s body will build up a thick layer of tissue in the uterus. Unless a sperm fertilizes the egg, the thick tissue is not needed and will then turn into a blood-like fluid and flow out of the vagina.

Talking About Health Concerns, Especially Fibroids

Many young girls have no idea what signs to watch for in regards to health concerns and puberty. When talking about periods this is a good time to educate your daughter on uterine fibroids. Early knowledge and awareness can lower the risk of medical problems later in life. A large number of girls with uterine fibroids don’t show any symptoms, but there are some who experience pain with their period along with heavy and prolonged bleeding. This is why you should encourage your daughter to inform you of any pain and heavy bleeding when she’s on her period. Uterine fibroids don’t normally lead to fatal outcomes, but they can cause an immense amount of pain and sometimes require surgery to have them removed. The sooner these fibroids are diagnosed, the sooner they can be treated.

It may not be a topic you want to discuss over dinner, but periods and fibroids are definitely subjects you and your daughter need to discuss.

Georgia Vascular Institute is a referral center that can help with many types of health concerns. We can help with veins, fibroids, infertility, migraines, osteoporosis, cancer treatment, foot and leg ulcers, and many other conditions. Contact us anytime to learn more about how interventional radiology can help you. 

how to find a good healthcare specialist

5 Things You Should Look for When Seeking a Specialist

Having a go-to healthcare specialist is paramount to your overall health. With the help of a specialist, you can rest easy knowing you are in the hands of a competent medical professional who can address any concerns you may have. And not only is a specialist helpful in answering questions, but also preventative tests, tools, and resources can be accessed through a healthcare provider, which is vital in catching and treating conditions in a timely manner. For now, let’s take a quick look at the top five things you should look for when seeking a specialist.

Is the specialist in your network?

If you have insurance, you will need to contact your provider and ask for a list of physicians and specialists who are in your network. If you opt for a specialist outside of your network, you may find yourself reaching deep into your pocket to pay for office visits and treatments. A simple call to your provider is the simplest way to narrow down the list of available specialists who will be covered by your insurance.

Does the specialist specialize in your area of health needs?

If you’re seeking a specialist for arthritis, you, of course, want to choose a physician that has many years of experience and extensive knowledge in treating patients suffering from arthritis. There are many types of healthcare providers available, most of which will fall into one of the following categories:

  • Family practice
  • Internal medicine
  • General practice
  • Specialist

Ideally, you will need to assess the type of care you are in need of to help determine which type of provider to choose. If you are having trouble determining the exact type of provider you need, you can always turn to the assistance of a general practitioner to guide you in the right direction.

Have you asked your friends and family for recommendations?

Your friends and family along with your coworkers are excellent sources of information regarding local specialists. You can ask them for recommendations and easily narrow down your list of providers to help you choose one who has a strong reputation among the people you trust most, like your friends and family.

Do you feel comfortable with the specialist?

Before you choose a specialist to meet your healthcare needs, it’s a good idea to meet the doctor in person and see if you feel comfortable or not. Since you will be sharing personal and medical information with the person, it’s of the utmost importance that you be comfortable and be able to communicate clearly to ensure the best treatment can be obtained.

Have you checked the experience and credentials of the doctor?

Lastly, you need to make sure and verify the experience and credentials of the specialist. The more experience and the more credentials the doctor has, the better.

Georgia Vascular Institute is a referral center that can help with many types of health concerns. We can help with veins, fibroids, infertility, migraines, osteoporosis, cancer treatment, foot and leg ulcers, and many other conditions. Contact us anytime to learn more about how interventional radiology can help you. 

poor circulation circulatory problems

The Symptoms and Effects of Poor Circulation

Poor circulation can be a major problem for many people today, especially when other medical problems are present. Often, people don’t even realize that they have circulatory problems because the symptoms aren’t very well known. This blog focuses on helping you identify the signs of poor circulation — and when you should reach out for help.

The Signs of Poor Circulation: What to Watch Out For

Some of the signs of poor circulation are quite hard to deal with while others may be more subtle, at least in the beginning. The most common indicators that you may be suffering from poor circulation include:

  • Numbness in your hands and/or feet
  • A “pins and needles” sensation in your hands and/or feet
  • Your hands and/or feet feel colder than the rest of your body
  • Your feet and/or ankles are swollen
  • You’re having memory problems or can’t focus
  • You feel run-down or even exhausted all the time
  • You have joint pain
  • You experience muscle cramps often
  • Your skin color changes in some areas of your body
  • Your skin’s texture changes, becoming thicker and tougher in some places

It’s quite common to have several of these symptoms simultaneously. It’s not unusual for the symptoms to be worse at some times than others. However, improvements are usually short-lived unless you seek out treatment for your circulation problems.

How Poor Circulation Can Affect Your Life — and When to Get Help

Poor circulation can impact your life in many negative ways. You may find that untreated circulatory problems keep you from doing anything that requires standing for any length of time. Exercise — even walking at a moderate pace — can become nearly impossible when your feet are numb, tingling, or uncomfortably swollen. Even driving a car can be difficult if you’re dealing with circulatory problems that impact your feet. Small tasks that require holding an object, for example cutting up food with a knife, can be terribly difficult when your hands are freezing cold, numb, tingling, or swollen.

If poor circulation is causing you to miss out on your normal daily activities, it’s time to ask for help. With today’s highly advanced treatments, you don’t have to live this way any longer.

If you’re dealing with poor circulation, contact Georgia Vascular Institute at 770-506-4007 for help. As a referral center that aids in both diagnostics and treatment, we can help with everything from lifestyle change recommendations to surgery for poor circulation. Schedule an appointment online now!

uterine fibroids and pregnancy

How Uterine Fibroids Affect Pregnancy

Uterine fibroids are abnormal, non-cancerous growths that can appear in a woman’s uterus. The exact cause of their development is not known; however, some professionals believe it relates to a woman’s hormones or genes. Having yourself checked for uterine fibroids is an excellent precautionary choice to make being that numerous side effects can cause harm to your body. It is suggested to get checked for uterine fibroids because it is likely you might have them. In fact, some sources like UCLA Health claim these fibroids occur within 20 to 50 percent of women.

Why Do Uterine Fibroids Go Undetected?

Women are often unaware of having a uterine fibroid until an initial routine ultrasound is performed when expecting a child. This is because fibroids sometimes do not cause any symptoms. Although they are quite common, it is unusual for the fibroids to cause any complications during a woman’s pregnancy. If symptoms are present, they most often are experienced by the mother and can display themselves as nausea, pain, fever, vomiting, and infrequently, as an elevation of white blood cells. Even though complications are rare with fibroids, it’s still wise to be aware of possible problems. Unfortunately, due to risks involved with the uterus bleeding more than normally, once a woman is pregnant, the fibroid cannot be removed.

Side Effects of Uterine Fibroids

As previously mentioned, pain from the fibroid is one symptom an expectant mother may experience, especially as the fibroid becomes larger. This growth is often caused in part by the fibroid’s response to progesterone and estrogen hormones, both of which increase dramatically during pregnancy. The location of the fibroid is another determination of possible complications, both during pregnancy and at delivery. The risk of complication increases if the fibroid is located directly next to the placenta, which can translate into a decrease in the blood supply to the fetus.

A lower than normal blood supply could cause a baby to be born at a lower than normal birth weight; this increases the likelihood of breathing problems and an abnormal body temperature in the newborn. In more severe cases, an early delivery may be warranted if the blood supply is extremely compromised. A C-section may also be necessary if the fibroid is positioned in a location close to the cervix and obstructs delivery or causes the baby to be in a breech position.


If you are pregnant, it is imperative to have yourself tested for uterine fibroids. Detecting the fibroids can be essential in choosing the appropriate delivery method for your child.

Georgia Vascular Institute is a referral center that can help with many types of health concerns. We can help with veins, fibroids, infertility, migraines, osteoporosis, cancer treatment, foot and leg ulcers, and many other conditions. Contact us anytime to learn more about how interventional radiology can help you. 

GVI patient who suffered from migraines but found relief

Patient Success Story: Finding My Migraines Puzzle Pieces

At Georgia Vascular Institute, we love to hear stories of success from our patients. In our latest testimony, patient Susan McManus tells her story of suffering from migraines for 18 years before visiting with Dr. Sendil Subramanian. Read more